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DISK WIZARD 

USER'S MANUAL 

FOR THE ATARI 400/800 COMPUTER 



DISK WIZARD 



USEFt'S MANUAL. 



PROGRAM MANUAL 

WRITTEN BY: WRITTEN BY: 

P. A. CAMPANARO A. L. ARBITAL 

AND 
R. W. PAKAN 



Copyright (5) 1982 by C. A- P. Software 
York, Maine 03909 



All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be 
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted 
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, 
photocopying, recording or otherwise without written 
permission from C.A.P. Software. While every precaution 
has been taken in the preparation of this manual, C.A.P. 
Software assumes no responsibility for errors or 
omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages 
resulting from the use of the information contained 
herein. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

I. INTRODUCTION 1 

II. BACKUP OF ORIGINAL 2 

III. KEYBOARD PROTOCOL - 2 

IV. BETTING STARTED WITH DISK WIZARD 3 

V. BOOTING UP DISK WIZARD 4 

VI. DISK BACKUP 5 

VII. DISK EDIT 14 

VIII. DISK SPEED 25 

IX. DISASSEMBLER 30 

X. TECHNICAL INFORMATION 38 

XI. BACKUP PHILOSOPHY 40 

XII. DISK PROTECTION METHODS 41 

XIII. WARRANTY 42 

APPENDIX A 43 



I . I NTRODUCT I OIM 

Congratulations on your purchase of C.A.P. Software's 
DISK WIZARD. Me believe that you will be more than 
satisfied with the quality and versatility of the programs 
contained on this disk- 
As you will see when you run DISK WIZARD, a lot of 
time has gone into preparing these programs for you- It 
has features that are suitable for the beginner, but also 
contains more advanced programs for the experienced 
computer enthusiast. Most importantly though, is that all 
of the programs on DISK WIZARD are laid out in a fashion 
that is understandable and easy to use. 



TRADEMARK ACKNOWLEDBEMENTS 



ATARI, ATARI 800, ATARI 810 are 

registered trademarks of ATARI Inc., 

a Warner Communications Co. 



-1- 



II- 0(ACKLJf=> OF ORIBINAL 



We strongly suggest that be-fore proceeding any 

•further, you make a backup copy of your DISK WIZARD disk. 

Please refer to Appendix A -for the DISK WIZARD Backup 
Procedure. 



I I I - KEYBOARD PROTOCOL 



The keyboard entries -follow the format shown below: 

- When a prompt is followed by two values separated by 
a slash, the entry can be either of the two values 
(e.g., FORMAT BACKUP DISK<Y/N)>. The entry may be either a 
Y or an N. Press CRETURN3 after the value has been 
sel ected • 

- When a prompt is followed by two values separated by 
a dash, the entry can be any value between the first and 
second value, inclusive<e.g. , ENTER START SECTOR <i -720) ) . 
The entry may be any integer between 1 and 720 including 1 
and 720. Pr ess C RETURN 3 after a value has been selected. 

- If at any time an incorrect keyboard entry is made, 
the computer will "Beep" and wait for the correct entry. 
If you're pressing the correct keys and are still getting 
a "Beep" check to make sure the keyboard isn't set for 
inverse video or lower case. 

- If you type the wrong character, hit DELETE BACK S 
to correct. 



IV- OETTINB STianRl-rED WITH disk 
fell iZtfStFtD 



We assume that you are already familiar with the 
basic operations of your ATARI 800 computer and Disk 
Drive. DISK WIZARD requires a minimum of 32K of RAM, a 
Basic cartridge and a disk drive. DISK WIZARD can 
accomodate 1 or 2 drives. If you have just purchased your 
ATARI computer system, please read the literature supplied 
with the computer and disk drive before running DISK 
WIZARD. 

The DISK WIZARD disk contains four separate programs. 
The function of each program is explained below: 

i.DISK BACKUP: Makes a sector by sector copy of any 
disk. 

2. DISK EDIT: Enables the user to review and/or modify 
data on any sector of a disk. Also allows user to scan 
disk sectors for a series of bytes or a string. 

3. DISASSEMBLER: Allows disassembly of machine 
language directly from disk by file name or sector number. 

4. DISK SPEED: Provides display of exact disk drive 
speed. Also allows for creation of bad sectors on any 
disk. 

A detailed description of each of the programs is 
presented in sections VI, VII, VIII, and IX of this 
manual • 



V- BOOTING UP DISK WIZARD 

The following procedure should be used to load the 
DISK WIZARD disk into your ATARI 800 computer: 

1- Turn on your TV or Monitor. 

2. Insert the Basic cartridge into your computer. 

3. Turn on the disk drive and wait for the busy light 
to go out. Now carefully insert the DISK WIZARD disk into 
disk drive 1 and turn on your computer. DISK WIZARD is 
now being loaded. When the program load is complete you 
will see the DISK WIZARD MAIN MENU on the screen as shown 
below: 



C . A . R . SOFTWARE 
PRESENTS 
DXSK MIZARD 

DISK BACKUP 
DXSK ED-XT 
DISK SREED 
D X S A S S E MB L E R 

SELECT AND START 

!EL . JL . JL CC3 X9©2 



At this point you are ready to select one of the four 
DISK WIZARD programs. Press the SELECT button until the 
desired program title is highlighted. Press the START 
button to load the selected program into the computer. 



-4- 



VI- E> I SK O^CKUR- 



When the DISK BACKUP program is loaded you will see 
the following display: 



DISK BACKUP 1 



DRIVE CS) - i """^NSITY - SINGLE 
FORMAT - YES PRINT - NO 

ENP SECT CHK - YES FAST WRITE - NO 
START SECTOR - 1 END SECTOR - 728 



1 BACKUP DISK 

2 CHANGE OPTIONS 

3 RETURN TO MAIN MENU 

ENTER NUMBER Cl-3>| 



This program is used to make a sector by sector copy 
of any disk. An option table is located at the top of the 
display. These options may be changed to meet your 
specific requirements. The function of each option is 
described on the following pages. Before continuing 
let's define the following two terms: 

SOURCE DISK: The disk which contains the program you 
wish to copy. 

BACKUP DISK: A blank disk that will contain a copy of 
the source disk program after running DISK BACKUP. 

♦NOTE* 
Please refer to the KEYBOARD PROTOCOL section of this 
manual if any problems are encountered during keyboard 
entries. 

#*#**♦##*♦ 



OACKUR 1 DISK 



If the options in the option table do 
changed and you wish to begin the DISK 
type 1 C RETURN 3 and skip ahead to page 8 
DISK BACKUP Procedure. 



not need to be 
BACKUP procedure 
to continue the 



32 - CH^INJOE OPT I OIMO 

If any or all of the options need to be changed type 2 
CRETURN3. A prompt -for each option will then be displayed 
one at a time. Each prompt must be answered be-fore 
continuing on. 



3 - FtEinrijiFtiM ~ro m*=%xini meimiji 

This selection is used to exit from the DISK BACKUP 
program and return to the DISK WIZARD MAIN MENU. After 
typing 3 CRETURN3 you will see the message: INSERT DISK 
WIZARD IN DRIVE 1 PRESS RETURN. Following the 
instructions on the screen will bring you back to the DISK 
WIZARD MAIN MENU. 



OPT IONS 



ENTER NUMBER OF DRIVES? (1/2) - Enter the number of 
disk drives connected to your computer, then press 
[RETURNS. Pressing just CRETURN3 will cause the program 
to default to the value presently shown in the option 
table. 

ENTER DENSITY?<S/D) - Type S CRETURN3 if your disk 
drive(s) is a single density drive. Press D CRETURN3 if 
you have a double density drive <s) with a double density 
disk installed. Pressing just CRETURN3 will cause the 
program to default to the value presently shown on the 
option table. 

FORMAT BACKUP DISK?<Y/N) - TYPE Y C RETURN 3 if you 
wish to format the backup disk. A blank disk must be 
formatted before any data is written onto it. 
(CAUTION-Formatting a disk destroys any data previously 
saved on that disk.) Type N CRETURN3 if you do not wish to 
format the backup disk. You will not want to format the 
disk if you are doing a partial copy and just wish to 
transfer selected sectors to a disk " that contains other 
data. Pressing just CRETURN3 will cause the program to 
default to the value shown on the option table. 

PRINT BAD SECTOR NUMBERS? (Y/N) - Please make sure 
your printer is turned on if you plan to answer Y(Yes) to 
this option question. If Y CRETURN3 is pressed the 
numbers of all bad sectors will be printed during the DISK 
BACKUP procedure. A bad sector is any sector on a disk 
that cannot be read by the disk drive. If there are no bad 
sectors the message "NONE" will be printed when the 
source disk reading operation is complete. If N CRETURN3 
is pressed the bad sectors will not be printed, however 
they will be displayed on the screen as they are found 



during the reading of the source disk- Pressing just 
CRETURN3 will cause the program to de-fault to the value 
presently shown on the option table. 

EMPTY SECTOR CHECK? (Y/N) - If Y CRETURN3 is pressed 
the empty sector check is performed on each sector. An 
empty sector is a sector that contains all zero data. 
This option saves time if there are many empty sectors on 
the source disk. The rationale behind the empty sector 
check is as follows: When a disk is formatted all 720 
sectors will be written with all zero data. Thus, if as 
we read a source disk we encounter a sector with all zero 
data, there is no need to write this sector on the backup 
disk. Do not use this feature if the backup disk is not 
being formatted because there is no guarantee that a 
given sector will contain all zero data. If the disk used 
as a backup once had data on it, the sectors will not be 
all zeroes. Empty sector numbers are identified on the 
screen as they are read from the source disk. 

If N CRETURN3 is pressed all sectors (except bad 
sectors) will be copied onto the backup disk. 

Pressing just CRETURN3 will cause the program to 
default to the value presently shown on the option table. 



***«- I MPORTANT MOT- £!•***€- 

If you are using a PERCOM Disk Drive do not use the empty 
sector check option, press N CRETURN3. This is due to the 
fact that the PERCOM drive does not format the disk with 
all zeros. 

********** 



FAST WRITE? (Y/N) - Normally data is written onto the 
disk then read back by the drive to verify proper data 
transfer. 

If Y CRETURN3 is pressed data written onto the disk 
is not read back for verification. Selecting this option 
increases the copying speed at the expense of not 
verifying the data written on the disk. 

Pressing N CRETURN3 allows the normal read after 
write verification of data transferred onto the disk. 

Pressing CRETURN3 will cause the program to default 
to the value presently shown on the option table. 

PARTIAL C0PY?(Y/N) - If N CRETURN3 is pressed in 
response to the PARTIAL COPY prompt the entire disk will, 
be copied (START SECT0R«1 and END SECT0R«720) . The program 
will then display the original DISK BACKUP MENU. 

If just t RETURN] is pressed the program will default 
to the START and END sector numbers shown in the option 
table. The program will then display the original DISK 
BACKUP MENU. 

Pressing Y CRETURN3 allows you to make a partial copy 



-7- 



of a disk. A disk contain* 720 sectors, starting with 
sector number 1 and ending with sector number 720. If it 
is known that the program on the source disk you wish to 
copy has less than 720 sectors of data or for some other 
reason you wish to transfer a certain group of sectors 
then the partial copy option can be employed. This will 
speed up the copy process. After you type Y C RETURN 3 the 
following prompt will appear on the display: 

ENTER START SECTOR NUMBER < 1-720) 

Enter the number of the first sector you wish to copy then 
press C RETURN 3- The following prompt will then be 
d i sd 1 a vod * 

ENTER END SECTOR NUMBER <X-720> 

<< Where X is the starting sector number you entered >> 

Enter the number of the last sector you wish to copy then 
press CRETURN3. For example, if you know a program 
occupies sectors 1 through 200 on a particular disk, 
setting the START SECTOR NUMBER-1 and the END SECTOR 
NUMBER»200, the program can be copied without taking the 
time to copy sectors 201-720. 

After changing the desired options you are now back 
to the original DISK BACKUP MENU. You may now do one of 
three things: 

1. TYPE 1 CRETURN3 - This will start the Backup 
procedure, described in detail on the following pages. 

2. TYPE 2 CRETURN3 - This allows you to again, change 
the options in the option table. 

3. TYPE 3 CRETURN3 - This will return you to the DISK 
WIZARD MAIN MENU where you may re-select the program you 
wish to run. 



OX OK BACKUP PROCEDURE 



You are now ready to start the copying process so 
type 1 C RETURN D. 

HWH-W-MO'TEHNHNh 

If at any time during the copying process you wish to 
stop, press the ESCAPE KEY CESCD. The computer will halt 
the copying process and return you to the DISK BACKUP MENU. 

********** 

If you are using two disk drives please skip to the 
section - C0PYINB USING TWO DISK DRIVES. 



-8- 



COPYING USING ONE D I J3K DRIVE 

The prompt INSERT SOURCE DISK, PRESS RETURN will be 
displayed as shown below: 



:^K BACKUP 



DRIVE CS) - 1 






DENSITY - SINGLE 


FORMAT - VES 


PRINT - NO 


ENP SECT CHK 


- YES FAST MRITE - NO 


START SECTOR 


- i END SECTOR - 728 



INSERT SOURCE DISK, PRESS RETURN! 



At this point, remove the DISK WIZARD disk 
disk drive and insert the disk with the program 
to copy < SOURCE DISK) . 



from the 
you wi sh 



•K-wNOTE** 

It is a good idea to make sure the source disk has the 
write protect tab installed to prevent any inadvertent 

damage* 

********** 

Press CRETURNH and the source disk will be read sector 
by sector. As each sector is read -from the disk it will be 
displayed on the screen: 



E>X*5nK 



ACKUP 



DRIUECS1 - 1 
FORMAT - YES 
EMP SECT CHK - YES 
START SECTOR - i 



-ENSITY - SINGLE 
PRINT - NO 
FAST WRITE - NO 
END SECTOR - 728 



READING 
READING 
READING 
READING 
READING 
READING 
READING 
READING 
READING 
READING 
READING 
READING 



SECTOR 
SECTOR 
SECTOR 
SECTOR 
SECTOR 
SECTOR 
SECTOR 
SECTOR 
SECTOR 
SECTOR 
SECTOR 
SECTOR 



129 
138 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
148 



-9- 



If, during the reading of the source disk, a bad or 
empty sector is found, the message BAD SECTOR or EMPTY 
SECTOR will be displayed to the right o-f the respective 
sector: 



D-XI3.K: BACKUI 



DRIVE CS J 








■ixa 


- I 




DENSITY - SINGLE 


FORMAT - 


■ YES 




PRINT - NO 


EMP SECT CHK - 


YES 


FAST WRITE - NO 


START SECTOR - 


1 


END SECTOR - 720 


READING 


SECTOR 


407 


- EMPTY SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


408 


- BAD SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


409 




READING 


SECTOR 


410 


- EMPTY SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


411 


- BAD SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


412 




READING 


SECTOR 


413 


- EMPTY SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


414 


- BAD SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


415 




READING 


SECTOR 


416 


- EMPTY SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


417 


- BAD SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


418 





Sector data will continue to be read and stored into 
computer memory until memory is full (approximately 196 
sectors for 48K) • When memory is full the prompt INSERT 
BACKUP DISK, PRESS RETURN will be displayed. When the 
busy light goes out on the disk drive unit, remove the 
source disk and insert a blank disk (BACKUP DISK) and 
press CRETURNJ. If the FORMAT BACKUP DISK option is 
enabled the backup disk will now be formatted. After the 
format operation is complete the backup procedure will 
continue. Sector data will now be written on the backup 
disk. As each sector is written on the disk it will be 
displayed on the screen in the same way as it had during 
the reading portion except that it informs you that it is 
writing those sectors. 



This will continue until all sectors previously read 
into memory are written onto the backup disk. If the 
backup process is not complete (there are more sectors to 
be copied) the prompt INSERT SOURCE DISK, PRESS RETURN 
will again be displayed. Continue swapping source and 
backup disks as indicated by the display prompts until 
copying is complete. Copying is complete when you see the 
FINAL SECTOR COUNTS display as shown on the following page: 



-10- 



DISK BACKUP 

DRIVE CS> - i ■ aMayi ||MSITV - SINGLE 
FORMAT - YES PRINT - NO 
EMP SECT CHK - YES FAST WRITE - UQ 
START SECTOR - 1 END SECTOR - 729 



FINAL SECTOR COUNTS! 

NUMBER OF DATA SECTORS - 720 
NUMBER OF EMPTY SECTORS - 
NUMBER OF BAD SECTORS - 
LAST DATA SECTOR - 720 

PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE! 



The FINAL SECTOR COUNTS display will include the 
•Following information about the disk just copied. 

The number of data sectors 
The number of empty sectors 
The number of bad sectors 

The sector number of the last sector containing 
non-zero data 

The following prompt is also included on the FINAL 
SECTOR COUNTS display. PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE. Pressing 
CRETURN3 brings you back to the DISK BACKUP MAIN MENU. If 
you run the program again, remember that the program will 
use the options currently shown in the option table. 

If the backup copy of the program does not run please 
refer to section XII of the manual, DISK PROTECTION 
METHODS. 

COPYING USX NO TWO DISK DRIVES 

If the two drive option was selected, the OPTION 
table and the prompt INSERT SOURCE DISK IN DRIVE 1 AND 
INSERT BACKUP DISK IN DRIVE 2, PRESS RETURN will be 
displayed. 

At this point remove the DISK WIZARD disk from drive 
1 and insert the source disk. 

##NOTE»* 
It is a good idea to make sure the source disk has the 
write protect tab installed to prevent any inadvertent 
damage. 

-11- 



Insert a backup disk into drive 2 and press C RE TURN 3, 
Sector data will now be read from the source disk sector 
by sector. As each sector is read -from the disk, that 
sector number will be displayed on the screen: 



BACKUP- 





■iTsTWilTIin 


DRIVE CS) - 2 




DENSITY - SINGLE 


FORMAT - VES 




PRINT - NO 


ENP SECT CHK - 


VES 


FAST WRITE - NO 


START SECTOR - 


1 


END SECTOR - 728 


READING SECTOR 


138 




READING SECTOR 


131 




READING SECTOR 


132 




READING SECTOR 


133 




READING SECTOR 


134 




READING SECTOR 


135 




READING SECTOR 


136 




READING SECTOR 


137 




READING SECTOR 


138 




READING SECTOR 


139 




READING SECTOR 


148 




READING SECTOR 


141 





If during the reading of the source disk, a bad or 
empty sector is encountered the message BAD SECTOR or 
EMPTY SECTOR will be displayed to the right of the 
respective sector: 



E>X3»C BACKI 



DRIVE CSJ 








■ma 


- 2 




DENSITY - SINGLE 


FORMAT - 


- YES 




PRINT - NO 


EMP SECT CHK - 


YES 


FAST NRITE - NO 


START SECTOR - 


1 


END SECTOR - 728 


READING 


SECTOR 


418 


- EMPTY SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


411 


- BAD SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


412 




READING 


SECTOR 


413 


- EMPTY SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


414 


- BAD SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


415 




READING 


SECTOR 


416 


- EMPTY SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


417 


- BAD SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


418 




READING 


SECTOR 


419 


- EMPTY SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


428 


- BAD SECTOR 


READING 


SECTOR 


421 





-12- 



Sac tor data will continue to be read and stored in 
memory until memory is full. If the FORMAT BACKUP DISK 
option is enabled, the backup disk will now be formatted. 
After the format operation is complete the backup 
procedure will continue. Sector data will now be written 
on the backup disk in drive 2. As each sector is written 
on the disk the sector number will be displayed on the 
screen. 

This will continue until all the sectors previously 
read into memory are written onto the backup disk. The 
program will now continue alternately reading and writing 
sector data until the copying process is complete, as 
indicated by the FINAL SECTOR COUNTS display shown below: 



■>X3K BACKUP 






- 2 
YES 
CHK 

:tor 


■ 


CTirfiHM 


ilNGLE 

- NO 

- 720 


DRIVE CS) 
FORMAT - 
EMP SECT 
START SEI 




^"density - « 

PRINT - NO 
YES FAST NRITE 
1 END SECTOR 



FINAL SECTOR COUNTS; 

NUMBER OF DATA SECTORS - 728 
NUMBER OF EMPTY SECTORS - 
NUMBER OF BAD SECTORS - 
LAST DATA SECTOR - 720 

PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE! 



The FINAL SECTOR COUNTS display includes the 
following information about the source disk just copied: 

The number of data sectors 

The number of empty sectors 

The number of bad sectors 

The sector number of the last sector containing 
non-zero data. 

The following prompt is also included on the FINAL SECTOR 
COUNTS display: PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE. Pressing 
C RETURN 3 brings you back to the DISK BACKUP MAIN MENU. If 
you run the program again, remember that the program will 
use the options currently shown in the option table. 

If the backup copy of the program does not run please 
refer to section XII of the manual, DISK PROTECTION 
METHODS. 



•13- 



VI I 



DISK EDIT" 



When the DISK EDIT program is loaded you will see the 
•following display: 



I>X3K 



DRXME - 1 



Ex-mxa 

DEI 



NSITY - SINGLE 



1 READ/CHANGE SECTOR 

2 SCAN SECTOR 

3 READ DIRECTORY 

4 DECIMAL/HEX CONVERSIONS 

5 CHANGE OPTIONS 

6 RETURN TO MAIN MENU 

ENTER NUMBER Cl~6>| 



As you notice there are two (2) system options that 
can be changed to tailor the edit program to your 
particular use. Changing these options is discussed in 
the CHANGE OPTIONS portion of this section. 

Below the "OPTIONS" you will see six <6) "MENU" 
selections. To select any one of these just type the 
number of the selection and CRETURN3. 



We wi 1 1 
detail . 



now discuss each of these selections in 



1 . READ/CHANGE SEC-TOR 

#NOTE* 
The following section is written for single density disk 
drives. If you are using a double density disk drive with 
a double density disk you should read this section first 
and then refer to the Double Density section at the end of 
this section. It contains an explanation of the 
differences for double density operation. 



-14- 



If you selected item 1 you will see the prompt: 

ENTER SECTOR NUMBER (1-720) 

You must enter the number of the sector that you wish 
to look at or change. When you enter this number and 
CRETURN3 the screen will display the contents of the 
selected sector in hex format. 

If you do not wish to look at any sector or if you 
want to return to the DISK EDIT MENU just press CRETURN3. 

Below is a sample of the sector display: 



SECTOR 



00 00 
5B 00 00 
5C 00 00 
00 0D 0D 
00 00 00 
28 80 15 
44 49 4E 
54 4F 52 
22 36 82 
84 2A 81 
34 36 82 
D2 00 IF 
3A 8A 3C 

00 00 00 
3C 81 2C 

01 31 19 



00 00 
00 00 
0A 0E 
16 C8 
OF OF 
47 20 
20 15 
2D 83 
20 85 
2D 87 
1C 36 
86 3C 
00 3C 
14 IF 
28 OF 



10 0C 
00 00 00 
00 00 64 
41 80 00 
00 34 1C 

52 45 41 

53 45 43 
81 15 14 
14 2C 07 
25 86 IB 
27 88 16 
89 2D 3F 
0E 40 82 
8B 3C 82 
24 16 2C 
0C 65 7D 



C 

DING 

TOR 

"6.- 

.*. 

46.- 

• ■ ^ ■ 

i • ■ ■ 

.i. c 



. .d 
A. . 
.4. 
REA 
SEC 



• # ■ 

X. . 
■ 

6.-? 
<.0. 

v 

■ ■ © ■ 



FN = 3 NEKT SECT = 181 BYTES = 125 
CHANGE SECTOR? CY/N>| 



As you notice the display is divided into two parts. 
The left half is an 8x16 matrix of the actual hex bytes 
that are stored on the disk. The right half displays the 
ASCII equivalent of these hex bytes. If a dot is 
displayed in this ASCII table it means that the 
corresponding data byte does not have an upper or lower 
case letter equivalent. 

The inverse video bands across the top and down the 

left side of the display are used as an address matrix to 

help you locate bytes within the sector. To determine the 

address of any data byte in the matrix take the 

corresponding left column address and add to it the 

corresponding top row address. This number will be the 

hex address of the desired byte. Remember that the 
letters A-F are used for the numbers 10-15, respectively. 



The address of each byte in 
scheme is shown on the next page: 



the matrix addressing 



-15- 









1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


ASCII 1 


00 


01 


02 


03 


04 




06 


07 




8 


08 


09 


0A 


OB 


OC 


OD 


OE 


OF 




10 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 




18 


18 


19 


1A 


IB 


1C 


ID 


IE 


IF 


«"tt$X&' 


20 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


28 


29 


2A 


2B 


2C 


2D 


2E 


2F 


«»+,-.• 


30 


30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


01234567 


38 


38 


39 


3A 


3B 


3C 


3D 


3E 


3F 


89 :;<=>? 


40 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


GABCDEFG 


48 


48 


49 


4A 


4B 


4C 


4D 


4E 


4F 


HXJKLMNO 


50 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


PQRSTUUH 


58 


58 


59 


5A 


5B 


5C 


5D 


5E 


5F 


XYZI\1A_ 


60 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


.abcdefg 


68 


68 


69 


6A 


6B 


6C 


6D 


6E 


6F 


hi jklnno 


70 


70 


71 


72 


73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


pqrstuvw 


78 


1 78 


79 


7A 


7B 


7C 


7D 


7E 


7F 


xyz*| . . . 



FN = 31 NEKT SECT = 382 BYTES = 127 
CHANGE SECTOR? CY/N)| 



The following example should help 
this procedure a little more easily. 



you to understand 



EXAMPLES 



#1 



#2 



If the left column value is: 20 
And the top row value is: + 5 



38 
+ 6 



The hex address of the data is: 



23 



3<14) 
or 3E 



If you still have problems understanding how to work 
with hex numbers consult almost any computer reference 
manual for a more complete explanation. 



Below the Sector Matrix, you will see a line which 
contains the symbols FN, NEXT SECT, and BYTES. This 
information can be very valuable to you if you are trying 
to "step" through a program sector by sector. The 
following brief description should help you understand 
what these symbols mean and how they can be used. 

Each sector of a DOS file contains 125 Data Bytes (0 
-7C) . The last three (3) bytes of each sector are called 
the control bytes. These are used to let DOS know how 
many bytes of information are contained in the sector, 
where the next data sector for that file is, and the file 
number. The following is a brief explanation of the terms 
associated with the aforementioned symbols: 



-16- 



FN<File Number) - This is the value associated with the 
file's position in the Disk Directory. The -file number 
may range from to 63. It is used to commonly identify 
all the sectors that make up a file. 

NEXT SECT (Next Sector) - This is the number of the next 
consecutive data sector of the selected file. NEXT SECT«0 
signifies that the displayed sector is the last sector in 
that file. 

BYTES (Number of Bytes) - This is the number of data 
bytes contained in the displayed sector. This value 
should be 125 for all sectors except the last sector of 
the file. 

If the sector being displayed on the screen is from a 
non-DOS file then the values for the above symbols will be 
meaningless. 

********** 

For a more detailed description of the sector layout 
see the TECHNICAL INFORMATION section of this manual. 

Below the symbols (FN, etc.) you will see the prompt: 

CHANGE SECTOR? (Y/N) 

If you do not wish to change any data in the 
displayed sector type N CRETURNJ. This will allow you to 
select another sector. 

If you wish to change any data in the displayed 
sector type Y C RETURN 3. You will now see the prompt: 

ENTER HEX ADDRESS (0-7F) 

Type in the address of the byte that you wish to 
change and CRETURN3. You will notice that this byte is 
highlighted and see the prompt: 

ENTER NEW HEX DATA (O-FF) 

♦NOTE* 
If the highlighted byte is not the one that you thought 
you had selected then press CRETURN3 and recalculate the 
address of the desired byte. Refer to the address 
location paragraph and example on the previous page. 

********** 

Type in the new data (in hex format) for this address 
and CRETURN3. The new data will be displayed in the 
selected address and the next sequential address will be 
highlighted. This is done for ease of entry of strings of 
data. If you do not wish to enter data at the newly 
highlighted address then press CRETURN3. You will now see 

-17- 



the prompt: 

ENTER HEX ADDRESS (0-7F) 

If you wish to change another address just enter it 
as you did before. 

If you do not wish to enter any more data in this 
sector then press CRETURN3. If any data had been changed 
during this time then the following question will appear 
on the screen: 

WRITE NEW DATA ON DISK? <Y/N) 

If you answer YES (type Y C RETURN 3) to this question 
then the newly revised sector will be written on the disk 
to replace the original sector. If you do not wish to 
write this new data on the disk then type N t RETURN 3. 

If you wrote the new data on the disk then the newly 
revised sector will again be displayed on the screen. If 
this data is correct as displayed then type N C RETURN 3 to 
the CHANGE SECTOR? question. The original prompt: 

ENTER SECTOR NUMBER (1-720) 

will be displayed. 

If you wish to look at or change any other sector (s) 
then repeat the above procedure for the new sector (s) • 

USING DOUBLE DENSITY 

The following paragraphs are written to document the 
differences in using the READ/CHANBE SECTOR section for a 
Double Density disk. If you haven't already done so, we 
suggest that you read the READ/CHANGE SECTOR section in 
its entirety before continuing any further. 

The sector display for double density is broken up 
into two (2) separate 128 Byte matrix displays. When a 
sector number is selected the screen will display the 
first 128 bytes (0-7F) of the sector and will ask the 
question: 

CHANSE FIRST HALF OF SECTOR? (Y/N) 

If you answer YES (type Y CRETURN3) to this question 
you will be able to change the sector in the same way as 
described in the SINGLE DENSITY section. 

•*f-IMOTE:*fr 

If any data in the first half of the sector is changed 
then it must be written on the disk before you look at the 
second half of the sector. 

********** 



-18- 



If you answer NO (type N C RETURN 3) to the above 
question you will then see the question: 

DISPLAY SECOND HALF OF SECTOR? (Y/N) 

If you type N C RETURN 3 to this question you will go 
back to the ENTER SECTOR NUMBER (1-720) prompt. 

If you type Y CRETURND then the screen will display 
the second 128 bytes (80-FF) of the sector. You may 
change any byte in the same way as you have done before. 

**• I NFORMAT I OIM NOTE* 
In double density mode the addresses of control bytes are 
FD-FF. 

********** 

There is one more important thing to realize about 
disks that are written in Double Density. 

SECTORS 1,2, AND 3 OF ALL DISKS ARE WRITTEN IN SINGLE 
DENSITY NO MATTER WHAT MODE YOUR DISK DRIVE IS IN. IF YOU 
ARE IN DOUBLE DENSITY MODE THE PROGRAM WILL AUTOMATICALLY 
SWITCH TO SINGLE DENSITY MODE FOR THESE SECTORS. 

Combining these differences with what we have read in 
the READ/CHANGE section for single density disks you 
should have no problem using this option with any disk. 



S-SC#=%M SECTOR 

If you have selected Item 2 from your DISK EDIT MENU 
you will see the following display: 



■>3Z3IC ED! 



Mm - l ™l«m - 3..CLE 



1 BYTE SCAN 

2 STRING SCAN 

ENTER NUMBER <1-2)| 



This section allows you to scan through the disk, sector 
by sector, searching for a group of bytes that comprise a 



-19- 



certain instruction or piece of data. This search can be 
done in either of two ways. 

The first way is a BYTE SCAN. (This is selected by 
typing 1 CRETURN3.) When BYTE SCAN is selected the screen 
display will look as follows: 



_______ Hk-U_UBS_l_-i_a 

&RIUE - i DENSITY - SINGLE 



ENTER BYTE CO-FF)| 



As you see there are 32 blanks on the screen. You 
may enter up to 32 bytes for any series. 

To enter data just type in each byte followed by a 
CRETURN3. Any single digit byte entered will have a put 
before it. (eg. 4 will become 04) You will notice that 
the previously entered byte appears in the top display. 
Repeat this procedure until all desired bytes Arm entered. 
At this time just press CRETURN3. 

The screen will now display the series of bytes that 
were entered and the prompt: 

ENTER START SECTOR (1-720) 

You must tell the computer at which sector you want to 
start the search. 

«**•**• IM O T E- •*•- «•*• 

If at any time you wish to get out of any part of 
this program just press C RETURN 3. 

After entering the START SECTOR you will be asked to 
enter the END SECTOR for the search. 

When the start and end sector are both entered the 
following question will appear: 

ENTER NUMBER OF BYTES (125/128) 

DOS files contain 125 data bytes (253 Data Bytes for 

-20- 



Double Density). The last three bytes are control bytes. 
This bytes per sector question is necessary -for the simple 
fact that if any string that you are searching for spans 
across two sectors you must ignore the control bytes and 
continue the data byte scan in the next sector. For all 
DOS files you must input 125 C RETURN 1 for this question. 
If, however, you are doing a byte scan in a program that 
is not DOS formatted the sector contains 128 data bytes 
<256 for double density) and all must be checked in the 
search. For this case you must type 128 C RETURN 3. 

Upon entering the number of data bytes per sector the 
computer will begin to scan the selected sectors for the 
desired series of bytes. 

If a match is found then the screen will display the 
sector in which the match was found and the first byte of 
the match will be highlighted. Keep in mind that if the 
series of bytes is not all contained in one sector then 
the computer will only display the sector which contains 
the first byte of the series. 

After displaying the first match the computer will 
ask you if you wish to CONTINUE SCAN? (Y/N) . If you do, 
type Y CRETURN3. The computer will continue to search 
until it either finds another match or comes to the last 
designated sector. 

If you answered NO to the CONTINUE SCAN question you 
will be returned to the initial SCAN SECTOR display. If 
you no longer want to scan sectors just press CRETURN3 and 
you will see the DISK EDIT MENU displayed. 

The second way to scan a sector is by using a STRING 
SCAN. This method searches through selected sectors to 
find a desired string of numbers or letters. If STRING 
SCAN is selected the screen will look as follows: 



i>zsk ed: 



DRIVE - 1 ■ UaMUi ffMSITY - SINGLE 




ENTER STRING: 



Type in the string that you want to locate and then 
press CRETURN3. 

As in BYTE SCAN you will be asked for START 8ECT0R, 
END SECTOR and NUMBER OF BYTES/SECTOR. After answering 
all of these questions, which are described in detail in 



-21- 



section 2 , the computer will begin to search for the 
desired string. 

If an exact match of the string is found the screen 
will display the sector in which the first letter of the 
matching string was found. If you wish to continue the 
scan just type Y CRETURN3. When the scan is complete a 
message containing the number of matches that were found 
will be displayed. At this point press CRETURN3 and you 
will be returned to the SECTOR SCAN MENU. If you press 
[RETURN!! again you will see the DISK EDIT MENU displayed. 



3 - ire: AD D i rector: y 

If item 3 is selected from the DISK EDIT MENU the 
following prompt will appear on the screen: 

ENTER DIRECTORY SECTOR NUMBER < 361-368)? 

Sectors 361 through 368 are called directory sectors. 
These sectors are used to store the names, starting 
sectors and lengths of all DOS programs found on the disk. 
When any program is called from the disk, DOS checks the 
Directory sectors to see if the program is on the disk and 
where on the disk it is located. As you use this portion 
of DISK EDIT you will become more familiar with what the 
directory sectors are actually used for. 

You must first select one of the eight directory 
sectors, say 361 for instance by typing the number and 
C RETURN 3. 

You will see a display that looks as follows (the 
disk that you are using will not contain the same 
filenames as the example): 



W>JL<E>K ED-JIT 

DRIVE - 2 DENSITY - SINGLE 



DIRECTORY SECTOR 361 



FILENAME 


START SECTOR 


LENGTH 


* DOS 


SYS 


4 


39 


* DUP 


SYS 


43 


42 


FILE1 




85 


22 


FILE2 




187 


22 


FILE3 




CD) 129 


22 


FILE4 




151 


22 


FILES 




173 


22 


FILE6 




195 


22 



READ NEXT DIRECTORY SECTOR CY/N)| 



-22- 



The left hand column shows the names of the file. An 
asterisk to the left of the name means that the file is 
locked. If a <D) appears to the right of the file name 
it means that the file has been deleted. 

The center column contains the starting sector of 
each listed file. The program or file always begins at 
byte 00 of the starting sector. The right hand column 
contains the length of each file in sectors. 

The directory is useful for the simple reason that 
you can see where any file is located on the disk quickly 
and easily. 

At the bottom of the display is the question: 

READ NEXT DIRECTORY SECTOR? <Y/N) 

If you want to look at the next consecutive directory 
sector press Y CRETURN3. The next directory sector will 
be displayed. 

If you don't want to look at the next sector but you 
do want to see another directory sector press N CRETURN3 
and the original prompt: 

ENTER DIRECTORY SECTOR NUMBER (361-368) 

will appear. You can repeat the above procedure until you 
have collected all your required information. If you are 
finished looking at the directory sectors press C RETURNS. 
This will bring you back to the DISK EDIT MENU. 



4.DECIMAL/HEX CONVERSION 

This portion of the program is used to convert from 
hex to decimal and decimal to hex. 

When you select item 4 from the DISK EDIT MENU the 
screen will display the following: 

1-DECIMAL TO HEX 
2-HEX TO DECIMAL 

ENTER NUMBER (1-2) 

If you wish to convert from decimal to hex just type 

1 C RETURN 3. You will see the following: 

ENTER DECIMAL NUMBER < 0-65535) 

You simply type in the number you want converted and 
CRETURND. The computer will do the converting for you and 
display the hex equivalent. 

If you want to convert from hex to decimal then type 

2 CRETURN3. The prompt: 

ENTER HEX NUMBER (0-FFFF) 
will appear on the screen. Just type in the number you 

-23- 



wish to convert and CRETURN3. The decimal equivalent will 
then be displayed. 

If no more numbers are to be converted then press 
CRETURN3. This will bring you back to the DISK EDIT MENU. 



Si . CHAN6E OPT I OMS 

This section should only be used by persons who have 
more than one disk drive or a double density drive. 

When this section is selected you will be asked the 
•following two questions: 

ENTER DRIVE NUMBER < 1-2) - Enter the number of the 
disk drive which contains the disk you wish to edit. If 
you do not wish to change this option simply press 
CRETURN3. In most cases disk drive 1 will contain DISK 
WIZARD and disk drive 2 will contain the disk for edit. 
The other question that will appear on the screen is: 

ENTER DENSITY (S/D) - If you are using a single 
density disk drive just type S CRETURN3. If you are using 
a double density disk then enter D CRETURN3. You will now 
find yourself back to the DISK EDIT MENU with the options 
changed to the number or density you wanted. 



£* - RETURN "TO MAIN MENU 

This selection is used to exit from the DISK EDIT 
program and return to the DISK WIZARD MAIN MENU. 

After typing 6 CRETURN3 you will see the message: 

INSERT DISK WIZARD 
IN DRIVE 1 
PRESS RETURN. 

Pol lowing the instructions on the screen will bring 
you back to the DISK WIZARD MAIN MENU. 



-24- 



v i i i - r> i sk ©f=>e:eo 



When the DISK SPEED program is loaded you will 
the -following display: 



I>X5K 3f»ee:e> 



DRIUE - i 



■'ia*«;« 



DISK SPEED MENU 



1 DISPLAY DISK SPEED 

2 WRITE SECTOR CS) 

3 CHANGE OPTIONS 

4 RETURN TO MAIN NENU 

ENTER NUMBER Cl-41| 



This program is used to verify your disk drive speed 
or to selectively write bad sectors onto a disk. Each 
selection in the DISK SPEED MENU is explained below. 



X - O I SPLAY D I OK SPEED 

Typing 1 C RETURN 1 selects the DISPLAY DI8K SPEED 
display as shown below: 



• K 



DRIUE - 1 



EHECEi 



DISPLAY DISK SPEED 



INSERT A NON BLANK DISK IN DRIUE 1 
PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE! 



-23- 



••frlMOTEHMh 

If you attempt to display the disk speed without a 
disk installed or a blank disk installed, the program 
cannot detect this error and will continue trying to read 
the speed of the disk drive. Press the CESC3 button if 
this error is made. 

Insert any non-blank disk into the appropriate disk 
drive as indicated by the display prompt. Press CRETURN3. 
The following display will now appear: 



E>XSK SPEED 



msaasEEm 

DRXUE - 1 



DISPLAY DISK SPEED 



WAITING FOR DRIVE SPEED TO STABILIZE 



After a few seconds, the screen will display the disk 
drive RPM as shown below: 



DIE-SIC SPEED 



DRIUE - i 



DISPLAY DISK SPEED 




RPM = 288 



PRESS ESCAPE TO TERMINATE 
SPEED READOUT 



The program will update the display about every 13 
seconds with the latest value of disk RPM. This is 
indicated by the RPM value flashing off then back on with 
the new RPM value. If the RPM of the disk is less than 
100 RPM or greater than 400 RPM, the RPM value will be 
displayed as ***. Refer to the next section of this 

-26- 



manual (WRITE SECTORS) for information on how to adjust 
the ATARI 810 disk drive speed. 

Pressing the CESCD button terminates the speed 
readout display and returns you to the DISK SPEED MENU. 



2> - WFfc I T E SECTORS 

Let's explain the bad sectoring process before 
proceeding any further. 

This section of the DISK SPEED program is used to 
create bad sectors on a disk. To create a bad sector (s) 
you must first slow down the speed of the ATARI 810 disk 
drive. Me recommend you do this only with the ATARI 810 
disk drive. 

Bad sectors can be written on a disk by following the 
step by step instructions given below: 



WARN I IMQ 

Before you attempt to adjust your drive, we must 
caution that the operation described here may void any 
warranty you have for your ATARI drive. Even if the drive 
is out of warranty, ATARI does not recommend that users 
attempt to adjust the speed of their drives. 

Neither the authors, nor C.A.P. Software can assume 
any responsibility for damage caused to your drive while 
attempting to make a speed adjustment. We do know that 
hundreds of ATARI owners are already adjusting the speed 
of their drives with no negative results. ATARI does 
provide an 810 Service Manual for $30 to anyone who 
insists on doing their own repairs. Write to ATARI 
Personal Computers, 1395 Borregas Avenue, Sunnydale, CA 



i. Boot-up DISK WIZARD (refer to section V of the 
manual) and select the DISK SPEED program. Press START. 

ii. When the DISK SPEED MENU is displayed, type 1 
CRETURN3 to DISPLAY DISK SPEED. Remove the DISK WIZARD 
disk from the disk drive. 

iii. Be sure you have a clean working environment so 
that dust, hair, etc. will not get into the disk drive. 

iv. You will need a pen knife, a small to medium size 
phillips head screwdriver and a small slot screwdriver. 

v. Using the pen knife or similar instrument, lift 
off the four plastic stick-on screw hole covers on the top 
of the drive. 

vi. Using the phillips screwdriver, remove the four 
screws that secure the drive cover to the base of the 
drive. 

vii. Carefully lift the cover off the drive and set 
it aside. 

viii. With the drive facing you, locate the drive 
speed potentiometer. We have found two different sizes 

-27- 



and locations of the speed potentiometer. One type is a 
white or blue nylon wheel potentiometer with a slot in it. 
It is located in the back o-f the drive to the left side. 
The other type is a ©mall green rectangular potentiometer 
with a very small slotted screw located about 2" -from the 
back of the unit and just left of the center. 

ix. Turn on the disk drive and insert any non-blank 
disk, as indicated by the display prompt. Press CRETURN3. 

x. The disk drive will now spin up and in a few 
moments the display will show the disk speed (should be 
about 285-290 RPM). 

xi. If you have the large nylon wheel type 
potentiometer turn it clockwise to slow the drive down. 
Just turn it a small amount and wait 
to update, to insure you are indeed 
you have the small rectangular type 
counterclockwise to slow the drive 
several turns to make a difference, 
the RPM readout to verify you're slowing it down. 

xii. Continue turning the potentiometer in the 
appropriate direction to slow the drive further until you 
hear the familiar "SNARK" sound. DO NOT watch the RPM 
readout, it will probably not be accurate at such low 



for the RPM display 
slowing it down. If 
potentiometer turn it 

down. It will take 
In either case watch 



xiii. Now increase the speed (turn potentiometer in 
the other direction) just enough to stop the "SNARK" 
sound. This will take a little experimentation, but once 
you've got it, it's easy. 

xiv. You are now ready to write bad sectors. Press 
CESC3 to terminate the DISK SPEED DISPLAY. Remove the 
non-blank disk used to measure speed from the disk drive. 

xv. Type 2 tRETURN3 to display the WRITE SECTOR 
DISPLAY as shown below: 



DIE-S.IC SPEED* 



DRIVE 



■■IslMiKHI 



WRITE 5ECT0RC53 



856 866 



ENTER SECTOR NUMBER C1-728J| 



xvi . You may now enter up to 32 sector numbers to be 
written on the disk as bad sectors. As you may remember, 

-28- 



the DISK BACKUP program lists or prints the numbers of the 
bad sectors found on the original program disk. These are 
the bad sectors which must be recopied onto the backup 
disk to make it an exact copy of the original. 

After you have entered the last sector number press 
C RETURN 3. The following display now appears: 



-SPEED 



DRIVE - 1 



mSSSMBBNESMBM 

SECTOR CS) 
056 066 

INSERT DISK TO BE HRITTEN 
IN DRIVE 1, PRESS RETURN! 



xvii. As indicated by the display prompt, insert 
the disk into the drive you wish to write the bad sectors 
onto. Press CRETURN3. The bad sectors will now be 
written on the disk. 

xviii. After the bad sectors are written, return to 
the DISK 8PEED DISPLAY and display the speed of the drive. 
Re-adjust the speed of the potentiometer to obtain the 
normal drive speed of 285-290 RPM. 

You have now created a backup disk with bad sectors 
that should run on your computer. If you have any 
problems running the backup copy then refer to section XII 
(DISK PROTECTION METHODS) of this manual. 



3 - CHANGE OPT X ONS 

Typing 3 C RETURN 3 allows you to change the options in 
the OPTION DISPLAY. Enter the number of the disk drive 
that you wish to verify the speed of, or to be used to 
write the bad sectors onto the backup disk. 



4.RETURN TO MAIN MENU 

TYPING 4 CRETURN3 returns you to the DISK WIZARD WAIN MENU 
where you may re-select the program you wish to run. 



-29- 



XX. D I SA8SEMBLER 

When the DISASSEMBLER program is loaded you will see 
the following display: 



■> JI -S Ck -5 ■& E MIP L E R 



DRIUE - 1 " ' • DEHSITY - 5J5S LE 
PRINT - HO ORIGIN - 3906 



DISASSEMBLER MENU 



1 DISASSEMBLE BY SECTOR NUMBER CS) 

2 DISASSEMBLE BY FILE NAME 

3 CHANGE OPTIONS 

4 RETURN TO MAIN MENU 

EHTER HUMBER Cl~4)| 



This program is used to disassemble machine language 
•from disk by file name or sector number <s> . This section 
of the manual explains how to use the DISASSEMBLER program 
on your DISK WIZARD disk. It does not explain 6502 
Assembly Language programming- If not already so, please 
become familiar with assembly language programming before 
using the disassembler program. 

Each selection in the menu will be described below 
including the options seen on the option table at the top 
of the DISASSEMBLER MENU. 

••fr^MonTe: *••■**• 

Typing CESC3 any time during this program will return 
you to the DISASSEMBLER MENU. If any problems are 
encountered during keyboard entries please refer to the 
KEYBOARD PROTOCOL section of this manual. 

********** 



l.DISASSEMBLE BY SECTOR 
NUMBER 

Typing i CRETURN3 allows you to disassemble a disk by 
sector number. You may disassemble as many sectors as you 
wish, from 1 to 720. At this point the fallowing prompt 
will be displayed: 

-30- 





ODC 


SASS 


EMBLER 




- 1 

- NO 








1 


HEED']? 


1 


I DRIVE 
1 PRINT 




DENSITY - 
ORIGIN - 


SINGLE 1 
3600 | 




| DISASSE 


MBLE BY 


SECTOR NUMBE 


:rcs) ■ 



ENTER START SECTOR Cl-720>| 

ENTER START SECTOR NUMBER - This is the sector number 
you wish to start the disassembler listing from* Enter 
the number of the -first desired sector and press CRETURN3. 

If just CRETURN3 is pressed the program will return 
to the DISASSEMBLER MENU. 

You will now see the prompt: 

ENTER END SECTOR NUMBER (X-720) C where X is the start 
sector number you just entered!] - This is the last sector 
number to be disassembled. Enter the number of the last 
desired sector and press C RETURN 3. 

If just C RETURN 3 is pressed the program will return 
to the DISASSEMBLER MENU. 

For example, if you wanted to disassemble only one 
sector, say sector 1, set START SECTOR NUMBER =1 and END 
SECTOR NUMBER -1. 

At this point the following prompt will be displayed: 



: -S tf* "S •& E MB L E R 



DRIVE 
PRINT 



1 
NO 



■^^HSITV 
ORIGIN 



- SINGLE 

- 3000 



DISASSEMBLE BY SECTOR NUMBER CSJ 



START SECTOR - 1 



END SECTOR - 1 



ENTER NUMBER OF 
BYTE5/5ECT0R C125/120)| 



Enter the number of bytes p&r sector you wish to 
disassemble. Normally you would enter 125 for DOS 



-31- 



created files. Press CRETURN3. The program will now 
start disassembling the sector data on the disk. Please 
refer to the TECHNICAL INFORMATION section of this manual 
for more detailed information on the number of bytes 
contained in a sector. 



■ffrlMO-TE** 

If at any time you wish to stop the display of the 
DISASSEMBLED program, press and hold CCTRL3 then type 1. 
Press CCTRL3 then 1 to continue the display listing. 

********** 



The disassembled listing of the 
appear on the display as shown below: 



sector data will 



■>!■ 



3056 


60 






RTS 




3057 


18 






CLC 




3058 


A5 


43 




LDA 


$43 


305A 


6D 


11 


07 


ADC 


$0711 


305D 


8D 


04 


03 


5TA 


$0304 


3060 


85 


43 




STA 


$43 


3062 


AS 


44 




LDA 


$44 


3064 


69 


00 




ADC 


st$oo 


3066 


8D 


05 


03 


STA 


$0305 


3069 


85 


44 




STA 


$44 


306B 


60 






RTS 




306C 


8D 


0B 


03 


STA 


$030B 


306F 


8C 


0A 


03 


STY 


$030A 


3072 


A9 


52 




LDA 


t»$52 
t*$40 


3074 


A0 


40 




LDY 


3076 


90 


04 




BCC 


$307C 


3078 


A9 


57 




LDA 


t»$57 


307A 


A0 


80 




LDY 


tt$80 


307C 


8D 


02 


03 


STA 


$0302 


307F 


8C 






??? 





*NOTE* 

If the disassembled listing is 
will not be displayed on the screen. 

********** 



being printed out it 



The program address is shown in the left column. Note 
that the program addresses are not always sequential. This 
is because of the variable length instructions which may 
be from one to three bytes long. Each byte requires one 
memory location. 

The beginning of a sector disassembly may contain 
question marks even though there is valid data. This is 
due to phase error caused by the variable length of the 
instructions. The first byte of the first instruction may 
be on the previous sector thus causing the disassembler to 
misinterpret the code. This phase error will correct 
itself as soon as the disassembler syncs itself with the 
sector data. 



-32- 



The next column contains the actual code (object 
program). The last two columns on the right contain the 
disassembled machine language (source program). 

The DISASSEMBLER program will continue to disassemble 
the sector data until the last required sector is 
disassembled (END SECTOR NUMBER). The -following display 
will now aopear" 



DI5ASSI 



305D 


8D 


04 


03 


STA 


$0304 


3060 


85 


43 




5TA 


$43 


3062 


A5 


44 




LDA 


$44 


3064 


69 


00 




ADC 


tt$00 


3066 


8D 


05 


03 


STA 


$0305 


3069 


85 


44 




STA 


$44 


306B 


60 






RTS 




306C 


8D 


0B 


03 


STA 


$030B 


306F 


8C 


0A 


03 


STY 


$030A 


3072 


A9 


52 




LDA 


tt$52 


3074 


A0 


40 




LDV 


tt$40 


3076 


90 


04 




BCC 


$307C 


3078 


A9 


57 




LDA 


tt$57 


307A 


A0 


80 




LDY 


tt$80 


307C 


8D 


02 


03 


STA 


$0302 


307F 


8C 






??? 





DISASSEMBLY COMPLETE 
PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE! 



Press CRETURN3 to go back to the DISASSEMBLER MENU. 



d i s^oseimbl-e: by 



name: 



Typing 2 CRETURN3 allows you to disassemble a disk by 
file name. The following prompt will now be displayed: 



DISASSEMBLER 



DRIUE - 1 
PRINT - NO 



EBHECH 



DENSITY - SINGLE 
ORIGIN - 3880 



l*«s«=H8IHs 



ENTER FILE NAMES i- 



Type in the file name of the file you wish to 
disassemble. The file name may be any group of 



-33- 



alphanumeric characters up to 12 character* in length, the 
•first character being a letter- The -file name must be an 
exact match including extension, if any, of the file you 
wish to disassemble (e.g. , TEST. BAS) - Press CRETURN3. Do 
not input Dl: or D2: in front of the file name. No wild 
cards allowed (e.g. , TEST.*) . 

If the file name is not found on the disk, the 
computer will "Beep 1 ' and the following display will appear: 



: -5 A "5 3 E MB L E R 



DRIVE 
PRINT 



1 
YES 



DENSITY - SINGLE 
ORIGIN - 3008 



DISASSEMBLE BY EILE NAME 



FILENAMES TEST. ABC 

FILE NOT FOUND 

PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE! 



Pressing CRETURN3 allows you to go back and enter 
another file name. 

If the listing is to be printed < PR I NT DISASSEMBLY 
option is YES) the following prompt will also be displayed 
as shown below: 



MBLER 



DRIVE - 1 
PRINT - YES 



ORIGIN 



SINGLE 
3060 



DISASSEMBLE BY FILE NAME 



FILENAME: AUTORUN.SYS 
ENTER TITLE FOR PRINTOUT: 



Type in the title you want to be printed at the top 
of the disassembler printout. The title may be any group 



-34- 



of alphanumeric characters up to 32 character© in length. 
Press C RETURN 3. 

When the correct file name ha© been -found, the 
program will read the file data from disk and begin to 
display or print the disassembled program. 

**imote:** 

If at any time you want to stop the display listing 
of the disassembled program, press and hold CCTRL3 then 
type 1. Type CCTRL3 then 1 again to continue the display 
listing. 

The display format of the DISASSEMBLER program is the 
same as that shown on page 32. 

The DISASSEMBLER program will continue until all the 
data in the file is disassembled. The following display 
will now appear: 



305D 
3060 
3062 
3064 
3066 
3069 
306B 
306C 
306F 
3072 
3074 
3076 
3078 
307ft 
307C 
307F 



8D 04 03 
85 43 
A5 44 
69 00 
8D 05 03 
85 44 
60 

8D 0B 03 
8C 0ft 03 
ft9 52 
ftO 40 
90 04 
ft9 57 
A0 80 
8D 02 03 
8C 



5TA 
STft 
LDA 
ADC 
STA 
STA 
RTS 
STA 
STY 
LDA 
LDY 
BCC 
LDA 
LDY 
STA 

9*9 



$0304 
$43 
$44 
tt$00 
$0305 
$44 

$030B 

$030A 
tt$52 
tt$40 

$3070 
tt$57 
»$80 

$0302 



DISASSEMBLY COMPLETE 
PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE! 



Press CRETURN3 to go back to the DISASSEMBLER MENU. 



3 - CHANGE OPT I ONS 

Typing 3 CRETURN3 allows you to change the options 
shown in the option table of the DISASSEMBLER program. A 
prompt for each option will be displayed one at a time. 
Each prompt must be answered before continuing on. Each 
option is explained below. 

ENTER DRIVE NUMBER (1-2) - Enter the number of the disk 
drive that will be used to read in the program to be 
disassembled. Press CRETURN3. 



-33- 



If just CRETURNH is pressed the program will de-fault 
to the value presently shown in the option table. 

ENTER DENSITY(S/D) - Type S if you arm disassembling 
from a single density disk, D if you are doing the same 
from a double density disk. Press CRETURN3. 

If just [RETURN} is pressed the program will default 
to the value presently shown on the option table. 

PRINT DISASSEMBLY (Y/N) -Type Y CRETURN3 to print the 
disassembled listing on your printer. If your printer is 
not on, an error message will be displayed. If N C RETURN 3 
is typed the listing will not be printed; however, it will 
be displayed on the screen. 

If just CRETURN3 is pressed the program will default 
to the value presently shown on the option table. 

ENTER ORIGIN - This is the assumed start address of 
the code that is being disassembled. The default value 
(value used if just CRETURND is pressed) upon loading the 
disassembler is hexadecimal 3000. If you are disassembling 
relocateable code this origin will not cause any problems. 

For example, suppose we ar& disassembling code that 
has an origin of 700 hex. 

0700 A900 CMP #*0 

0702 BNE *0706 

0704 A901 LDA #*1 

0706 LDY #*2 



The disassembled version with an origin of 3000 would 



be: 



3000 


00 


CMP 


#*0 


3002 




BNE 


$3006 


3004 




LDA 


tt«l 


3006 




LDY 


#*2 



Notice that the branch instruction (BNE) points to the 
same instruction in both cases. This is because the branch 
instruction is relative (ie. branch to x number of 
locations from current address). 

If we disassemble non relocateable code the following 
problem arises: 

ORIGINAL 

0700 A900 LDA #*0 
0702 205007 JSR *0750 
0705 A901 LDA #*1 

DISASSEMBLED 

3000 A900 LDA #*0 
3002 205007 JSR *0750 
3005 A901 LDA #*1 



-*6r- 



In the above example the JSR instruction is absolute 
<ie. point© to an unchanging address). To produce a 
useable listing of absolute code it is necessary to change 
the origin so that the address works out correctly. How is 
the origin determined? If it is a DOS -file the first 6 
bytes of the file usually contain this information in the 
following formats 

FFFF-BINARY FILE IDENT 
0007-START ADDRESS-0700 <lo,hi) 
8507-END ADDRESS-0785 <lo,hi> 

This header tells us that the origin for the 
disassembly should be 0700. However, the six byte header 
must be discarded because it isn't part of the actual 
code. To do this, just subtract 6 from the start address 
(in hex). This will give you an origin of 6FA<700-6). 
Consult the DOS and ASSEMBLER/EDITOR manual for further 
information on binary load files. 

If you're disassembling a non DOS format disk, you 
are pretty much on your own. You'll have to disassemble 
the boot code on sector 1 on up and figure out where the 
program is loaded. The boot code on sector 1 is in the 
following format: 



flags 


byte 1 


# of sectors 


byte 2 


memory address 
to start load 


byte 3 
byte 4 


init 
address 


byte 5 
byte 6 



Byte 1- should equal zero 

Byte 2- contains the number of 128 byte disk sectors 
to be read as part of the boot process. 

Bytes 3&4- contain the address <lo,hi) at which to 
start loading the first byte of the file. 

Bytes 5&6- contain the address do, hi) to which the 
booter will transfer control after the boot process is 
complete. 



-* « FtE-TLJRlIM TO MfOfcIN MENU 

Typing 4 CRETURN3 returns you to the DISK WIZARD MAIN 
MENU where you may re-select the program you wish to run. 



-37- 



TECHN I G*=kL. I NF^ORM^T- I OIM 



In this section we will discuss how a disk is laid 
out, what -formatting does to a disk, and how a program is 
located on a disk- We hope this information will help you 
understand the disk and its associated operations better. 



DISK LAYOUT 

The 5 1/4 inch -floppy disk is a round, flexible disk, 
that is covered with an oxide coating. This disk is 
enclosed in a protective envelope with several openings in 
it for access to the disk- The information is stored on 
the disk very much like a tape recorder stores information 
on recording tape. The data section of an ATARI formatted 
disk consists of 40 concentric rings, called tracks- Each 
track is divided into 18 sections, called sectors. A 
quick multiplication tells us that there are 40 X 18 « 720 
sectors on a disk. Each sector can contain up to 128 
bytes of information. DOS formatted sectors contain 125 
data bytes and three control bytes. These will be 
discussed in the next few paragraphs. On a DOS formatted 
disk there are three types of sectors. They are: the 
Volume Table of Contents, the Directory Sectors and the 
Data Sectors. 

1. VOLUME TABLE OF CONTENTS (SECTOR 360) - A sector 
that contains the status of all sectors. It lets the Disk 
Operating System (DOS) know which sectors are available 
for use in data files. 

2. DIRECTORY SECTORS (SECTORS 361-368) - These 
sectors are used to store the program names, as well as, 
their starting locations on the disk, the length of each 
program and the status of it (whether it is locked or 
unlocked, or whether it has been deleted, etc. ) . 

3. DATA SECTORS - The remaining sectors are called 
data sectors. These sectors contain programs, data, files 
and any other information being stored on the disk. 



F-OF*Mrf=fcT-T I NG 

Before a blank disk can be used to store any 
information, it must be formatted. When a disk is 
formatted the following operations occur: 

l.A special Boot File is written on sectors 1,2 and 3. 

2. The Volume Table of Contents (sector 360) is 
written. 



-38- 



3. Zeroes are written on all other sectors. 

When the -formatting is complete the disk is ready for 
use. 

PROGRAM LOCATION 

Before a file is stored on a disk, DOS checks the 
Directory to verify whether a file of the same name 
exists. If one does exist it will then check to see if 
that particular file is locked. The method for locking and 
unlocking files is described in any DOS book. If the file 
is not lacked then the new file will be written in the 
sectors that contained the old one of the same name. If 
the name of the new file being stored does not exactly 
match any other file name in the directory then DOS will 
write the new file name and its starting sector in the 
directory. It will then write the file on the disk. When 
this is complete it will store the length of the file in 
the Directory Sector containing that file name. 

Each Directory Sector can contain up to 8 file names. 
There are eight directory sectors, therefore there can be 
up to 64 separate files on a disk. 

If a file is being called from the disk, DOS scans 
the directory sectors for the desired file name. When the 
file name is located DOS then checks the starting sector 
for the file and begins reading that sector. The next 
step in this process is for DOS to find the next sector of 
the program. This is done by reading the control bytes 
(last 3 bytes of the sector). The control bytes contain 
three valuable pieces of information. First is the file 
number. This number defines a particular file's location 
in the directory. Since there can only be 64 files on any 
one disk the file number can be 0-63. All sectors of one 
file should have a common file number. The next thing of 
interest contained in the control bytes is the number of 
the next sector. This is used to link the sectors 
together. After DOS reads a sector it checks to see where 
the next sector in that file is located and then reads 
that one, and so on. The last thing contained in the 
control bytes is the number of data bytes in that 
particular sector. The only time that you will find a 
partially filled data sector is if it is the last sector 
of the file. Another way of determining whether a sector 
is the last one in a file is if the NEXT SECTOR = (see 
DISK EDIT section). 

Another thing to add here is that in files that are 
not DOS formatted all 128 bytes are data bytes, there are 
no control bytes. 

Hopefully the above information will help you in 
understanding some of the functions and operations of the 
various disk storage routines. Keep in mind that this is 
just an overview of the data disk layout and its 
associated functions to help you use DISK WIZARD to its 
fullest capabilities. 

-39- 



XI- BftGKLJR' PHILOSOPHY 



It is with the following philosophy in mind that the 
program DISK BACKUP was created: 

The DISK BACKUP program on DISK WIZARD is solely -for 
the purpose of making a backup copy of your original disk 
for your own use- This backup copy is necessary because 
the original disk may eventually wear out or can be 
accidentally lost or destroyed. 

In all fairness to the software manufacturers and 
dealers we urge you not to use this program for anything 
but the purpose stated above. 



-40- 



X I I - O I SK PROTECT I ON METHODS 



You will notice that with some of the program disks 
you make a backup copy of, the program will load but will 
not run. This is due to the fact that the programmer of 
the original disk installed a protection device so that 
any duplicate copy of the original will not run. 

*NOTE* 

The following section is for information only. Please 
read BACKUP PHILOSOPHY on page 40 of this manual before 
continuing with the next section. 

********* 

There are three commonly used protection methods for 
software , on the market today. 

The first method of disk protection is called "bad 
sectoring". This is accomplished by "removing" sectors 
from the disk using a specially modified disk drive. When 
a normal disk drive attempts to read these sectors, it 
cannot because these sectors do not exist. When a backup 
copy of this disk is made these "bad" sectors are not 
copied. When the program is run it attempts to read one 
of these "bad" sectors and expects to get a "bad sector" 
status back from the disk drive. Since this sector is not 
"bad" on the backup copy <it is only empty) the program 
stops. In order for the copy to run, bad sectors 
corresponding to those on the original, must be written on 
the disk. If it is desired to write "bad" sectors on a 
disk refer to section VIII of this manual. 

The next two protection methods that are employed 
require a specially modified disk drive to produce. A 
workable copy of disks protected by these two methods 
cannot be made without hardware modifications. We will, 
however, make a brief mention of these methods. 

One of these methods is called the "double sector" 
method. In this method two consecutive sectors of data 
are written on the disk but the same sector number is 
assigned to both. This is usually done on the last two 
sectors of each track (e.g. , Sectors 17-18, 35-36, 53-34, 
etc.). These "double sectors" can be read on a normal 
disk drive by doing consecutive reads of the same sector 
and by writing one of the sectors as the next consecutive 
sector • 

The other method of protection is the "custom format" 
method. With this method the disk is specially formatted. 
The sectors are written on this disk in a non-consecutive 
order. The program uses a special timing sequence to 
locate the desired sectors. This method is impossible to 
reproduce on a normal disk drive. 

-41- 



XX XX. LIMITED WARRANTY 



C.A.P. SOFTWARE warrants to the original consumer/ 
purchaser that this C.A.P. SOFTWARE program diskette shall 
be -free from defects in material or workmanship for a 
period of 90 days from the date of purchase. If a defect 
is found during this warranty period, C.A.P. SOFTWARE will 
replace the diskette, provided the diskette and proof of 
purchase is delivered or mailed, postage prepaid, to 
C.A.P. SOFTWARE. 

This warranty shall not apply if the diskette has been 
misused, shows signs of excessive wear, or has been 
partially or totally erased or damaged in any other way by 
the purchaser. Any applicable implied warranties, 
including warranties of merchantability and fitness, are 
limited to 90 days from the date of purchase. 
Consequential or incidental damages resulting from a 
breach of any applicable, express or implied warranties 
are hereby excluded. 



-42- 



#=%F="F>E:iMt> IX 1=* 

DISK WIZARD BACKUP PROCEDURE 

To make a backup copy of DISK WIZARD just follow 
these step by step instructions: 

1. Insert the ATARI Basic Language cartridge in the 
left Cartridge slot of your computer. 

2. Turn Disk Drive 1 power on. When the busy light 
goes out, open the disk drive door and insert the DI8K 
WIZARD disk. Turn on your computer and TV screen and wait 
until the DISK WIZARD MAIN MENU appears. 

3. Press the console 8TART button and observe the 
"DISK BACKUP LOADING" message. 

4. After loading is complete observe that the DISK 
BACKUP MENU is displayed. 

5. Enter 1 C RETURN 3. 

6. The display will read INSERT SOURCE DISK, PRESS 
RETURN. 

7. Since the source disk is already installed, just 
press CRETURN3. 

8. DISK BACKUP will commence reading the disk data 
into memory and continue reading data until memory is 
full. The sector number currently being read will be 
displayed on the screen. 

9. After memory is full the prompt INSERT BACKUP DISK, 
PRESS RETURN will appear. 

10. Remove the DISK WIZARD disk and insert a blank disk 
(with write protect tab removed). Press C RETURN 3. 

11. FORMATTING BACKUP DISK message will appear. After 
a few moments, writing of the disk data will begin. 

12. After the disk write is complete the INSERT SOURCE 
DISK message is displayed. Remove the backup disk and 
insert the DISK WIZARD disk then press CRETURN3. 

13. The program will continue to read in sectors from 
where it left off. Continue swapping source and backup 
disks as indicated by the display prompts until the FINAL 
SECTOR COUNTS display is on the screen. 

The backup process is now complete. Remove the 

backup disk and install a write protect tab on it. You 

now have a backup copy of DISK WIZARD in case the original 
is lost or damaged. 

-43- 



SOFTWARE | 

"Quality Software at an Affordable Price" 



i NEW BOSTON ROAD • YORK, MAINE 03909 
(207) 363-3036